Petrus Camper’s Metamorphosesfrog
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ANTHRO CAMPER BUFFON DAUBENTON ROUSSEAU
ORANG SKIN SHOE MORPHING UNICORN
1. INTRO 2. DOMESTIC 3. EXOTIC 4. DRAWING 5. SUMMARY

As the most beautiful quadruped and the most useful animal to man, the horse makes a good prototype.

Let BCDEF be the body and the legs of a horse in such a manner, that the legs, in order to be good for racing, be as high as GE and HD.
Draw the line AI (the purple line) to represent the direction of the vertebrae.
The line AY (green line) is the first rib, and, as a result, "A" (green circle) is the center of movement of the first vertebral in the neck (all animals have 7). The neck and the head together must be long enough so that the animal can eat, i.e. AY (green line) + YZ (blue line).


Plate III, Figure 1. The Horse
horse

When the head is smaller in relation to the height of the animal, the neck must be able to stretch all the more, as is the case in camels, sheep, etc.

When the head lifts, the neck must curve either on the outside (the outer brown line) or on the inside (the inner brown line) as in old horses.

In order to have such a neck, the spine protuberances of the vertabras in the back have to be able to lift a lot; and they do in the horse (in AB). The length of the protuberances are less considerable in the other animals; particularly less so in man, who carries his head in a straight line.

The horse has a big muscle (the violet line) which is the reason horses can kick (an unique characteristic of the species). The cow does not have this muscle and is therefore characterized by a hollow in that same area (blue patch).

The outline of the horse is sketched again (in red) and the feet of the horse has to shorten into those of the cow.


Plate III, Figure 2. The Cow

cow

From this result that the neck does not have to be as long: only as AF (brown line) when raised and as AY (green line) when grazing.
The neck does not need to shorten therefore, like in the horse, but raises in a diagonal direction that the head remains always lower, because of its weight and its horns, than the withers at point "B" (red circle), which for that reason is not as high as in the horse.

The outline of the horse (in red) and the line that passes through the vertebras (purple) is traced again.

Plate IV, Figure 3. The Dog
dog

Because of the change in food, change the horse stomach outline into the "green line." The neck can be of different lengths because the dog eats while lying down or launches without needing to graze the muzzle on the ground.
Its paw, in order to be lighter, have to be skinnier.
The bone of the leg being longer, the "brown line" becomes much shorter than in the horse.
The tail must serve in the movement of jumping.

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