Buffon Georges-Louis Leclerc, comte de Buffon (1707-1788)
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Marble bust of Buffon by Augustin Pajou (1776)


Georges-Louis Leclerc,
comte de Buffon (1707-1788)

Historiography

© Marble bust of Buffon
by Augustin Pajou (1776).
Bibliothèque centrale,
Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle,
Paris, France

Abbott, Joan M. W.
“Cultural Anthropology and the Man-Environment Relationship: An Historical Discussion,” Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers 43 (1970): 10-31.
Abrams, Meyer Howard.
The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1953.
Ackerknecht, Erwin H.
“George Forster, Alexander von Humboldt, and Ethnology,” Isis 46 (1955): 83-95. Buffon’s influence on Forster, p. 85.
Albalat, Antoine.
Comment il faut lire les auteurs classiques français de Villon à Victor Hugo. Paris: Armand Colin, 1913.
Aldridge, A. Owen.
“Feijoo and the Problem of Ethiopian Color,” Racism in the Eighteenth Century, ed. Harold E. Pagliaro, v. 3, pp. 263-277. Cleveland: Western Reserve Press, 1973.
Allen, Don Cameron.
The Legend of Noah: Renaissance Rationalism in Art, Science, and Letters. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1949.
Arland, M.; G. Lély and R. Maillard.
“Buffon (G. L. Leclerc de) Discours sur le style,” Dictionnaire des Œuvres, de tous les temps et de tous les pays. Paris: Laffont-Bompiani, 1983. V. 2, pp. 380-1.
Arland, M.; G. Lély and R. Maillard.
“Buffon (G. L. Leclerc de) Histoire naturelle générale et particulière,” Dictionnaire des Œuvres, de tous les temps et de tous les pays. Paris: Laffont-Bompiani, 1983. V. 3, pp. 539-540.
Atkinson, Geoffrey.
La littérature géographique française de la Renaissance: répertoire bibliographique. Paris, 1927. Supplément. Paris, 1936. Travel literature.
Atkinson, Geoffroy.
Les relations de voyages du XVIIe siècle et l’évolution des idées: contribution à l’étude de la formation de l’esprit du XVIIIe siècle. Paris, 1924. Reprint. New York: Burt Franklin, 1971.
Atran, Scott.
Fondements de l’histoire naturelle: Pour une anthropologie de la science. Bruxelles: Editions Complexe, 1986. Description, classification, notion of species in Buffon’s work.
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“Origin of the Species and Genus Concepts: An Anthropological Perspective,” Journal of the History of Biology 20 (1987): 195-279.
Babelon, Jean.
“Découverte du monde et littérature,” Comparative Literature 2 (1950): 157-166.
Banton, Michael.
The Idea of Race. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1979.
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“The Idiom of Race: A Critique of Presentism,” Research in Race and Ethnic Relations 2 (1980): 21-42.
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“The Internal and External Conditions of Racial Thought,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 6 (1983): 246-251.
Barante, Amable de.
A Tableau of French Literature during the Eighteenth Century. London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1833.
Barber, William Henry.
Leibniz in France from Arnauld to Voltaire: A Study in French Reactions to Leibnizianism. 1670-1760. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1955. Buffon incorporated Leibnizian themes into his natural history.
Barnes, S. Barry.
“Paradigms: Scientific and Social,” Man 4 (1969): 94-102.
Baron, W.
“Evolutionary Ideas in the Writings of J. F. Blumenbach,” Proceedings of the International Congress of the History of Science. Paris, 1964, v. 2, pp. 945-7.
Barsanti, Giulio.
“L’homme et les classifications: Aspects du débat anthropologique dans les sciences naturelles de Buffon à Lamarck,” Transactions of the Fifth International Congress on the Enlightenment 192 (1980): 1158-1164. Discussion of the different paths the evolutionary biologists and the doctors took trying to get out of the Cartesian dilemna of a dualistic definition of man.
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“Linné et Buffon: Deux visions differentes de la nature et de l’histoire naturelle,” Revue de synthèse 105 (1984): 83-111.
Barzun, Jacques.
Race: A Study in Modern Superstition. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1937.
Bastide, Roger.
“Color, Racism, and Christianity,” Daedalus 96 (1967): 312-327.
Bender, Donald R.
“The Development of French Anthropology,” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 1 (1965): 139-151.
Beneton, Philippe.
Histoire des mots “culture” et “civilization.” Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, 1975.
Berlin, Isaiah.
“A Note on Alleged Relativism in 18th-Century European Thought,” Transactions of the Fifth International Congress on the Enlightenment 191 (1980): 561-4.
Biondi, Carminella.
“L’image du noir dans la littérature française du XVIIIe siècle,” Transactions of the Fifth International Congress on the Enlightenment 192 (1980): 1175-1181.
Blanckaert, Claude.
“Buffon and the natural history of man: writing history and the “foundational myth” of anthropology,” History of the Human Sciences 6 (1993): 13-50.
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“J. J. Virey, observateur de l’homme (1800-1825),” Julien-Joseph Virey, naturaliste et anthropologue, eds. Claude Bénichou and Claude Blanckaert. Paris: Vrin, 1988, pp. 97-182. Virey, disciple of Buffon.
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“Médecine et histoire naturelle de l’homme: l’anthropologie française dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle,” Médecine et philosophie à la fin du XIXe siècle, ed. J. and J. L. Poirer. Paris: n.d., v. 2, pp. 101-116.
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“On the Origins of French Ethnology: William Edwards and the Doctrine of Race,” Bones, Bodies, Behavior: Essays on Biological Anthropology, ed. George W. Stocking, Jr. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988, pp. 18-55. History of Anthropology, v. 5. Buffon: pp. 28, 30, 33, 36, and 45.
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“Reflexions sur la détermination de l’espèce en anthropologie (XVIIIème-XIXème siècles),” Documents pour l’histoire du vocabulaire scientifique 4 (1983): 43-80. Buffon, pp. 47-9, 51-2, 62.
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“Story et history de l’ethnologie,” Revue de synthèse 109 (1988): 451-467. Buffonian anthropologists, p. 460; Buffon, p. 464n.
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“Les vicissitudes de l’angle facial et les débuts de la craniométrie (1765-1875),” Revue de synthèse 108 (1987): 417-43. Climate and other external factors originators, according to Buffon, of racial morphological differences, p. 424.
Blanckaert, Claude; A. Ducros, and J. J. Hublin, eds.
Bulletins et Mémoires de l’Académie de la Société d’Anthropologie de Paris. Numéro spécial, Histoire de l’Anthropologie: Hommes, Idées, Moments. V. 1, nouvelle série, nos. 3-4 (1989): 57-65. Several articles mentioning Buffon.
Bock, Kenneth E.
“Cultural Differences and Race: The History of a Problem,” Commentary 23 (1957): 179-186.
Bodenheimer, Frederick Simon.
“Zimmermann’s Specimen Zoolofiae Geographiae Quadrupedum, A Remarkable Zoogeographical Publication of the End of the 18th Century,” Archives Internationales d’Histoire des Sciences 8 (1955): 351-357. Buffon’s theories on the origins of living beings, their migrations and their future, pp. 354 and 356.
Bodin, Jean.
Method for the Easy Comprehension of History, trans. Beatrice Reynolds. New York: Octagon Books, 1966.
Boerner, Peter.
“The Images of America in Eighteenth Century Europe,” Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century 151 (1976): 323-332.
Boetsch, Gilles et al.
“Mesurer la difference: L’anthropologie physique,” Cahiers l’Etudes Africaines 33 (1993): 5-181.
Bots, Hans and Rob Visser, eds.
Correspondance, 1785-1787, de Petrus Camper (1722-1789) et son fils Adriaan Gilles Camper (1759-1820). LIAS Sources and Documents Relating to the Early Modern History of Ideas, vol. 28. Amsterdam and Utrecht: APA-Holland University Press, 2002.
Bourdier, Frank.
“Trois siècles d’hypothèses sur l’origine et la transformation des êtres vivants (1550-1859),” Revue d’Histoire des Sciences et de leurs Applications 13 (1960): 1-44. Buffon: h2, 16-21, 39.
Bowler, Peter J.
“Bonnet and Buffon: Theories of Generation and the Problem of Species,” Journal of the History of Biology 6 (1973): 259-281.
Brace, C. Loring.
“The Roots of the Race Concept in American Physical Anthropology,” A History of American Physical Anthropology. 1930-1980, ed. Frank Spencer, 11-29. New York: Academic Press, 1982.
Brahimi, Denise.
“Exotisme, science et idéologie,” Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century 151 (1976): 363-384.
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“La Sexualité dans l’anthropologie humaniste de Buffon,” Dix-Huitième Siècle 12 (1980): 113-126.
Brandon, Samuel G. F.
Time and Mankind: An Historical and Philosophical Study of Mankind’s Attitude to the Phenomena of Change. London: Hutchinson, 1951.
Brandon, William.
New Worlds for Old: Reports from the New World and Their Effect on the Development of Social Thought in Europe. 1500-1800. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1986. Buffon, pp. 110, 155-157.
Brasseur, Paule.
“Le mot Nègre dans les dictionnaires encyclopédiques française du XIXe siècle,” Cultures et développement 8 (1976): 579-594.
Bremner, G.
“Buffon and the Casting out of Fear,” Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century 205 (1982): 75-88.
Breuil, Henri.
“The Discovery of the Antiquity of Man,” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain and Ireland 75 (1945): 21-32.
Broc, Numa.
La géographie des philosophes. Géographes et voyageurs française au XVIIIe siècle. Paris: Ophrys, 1975. Buffon: 21, 43, 71, 177-8, 181-2, 193-201, 211, 215-6, 421-3, 438; human geography, 219-221, 229; and humanity in the “Epoques de la nature,” 453.
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Les montagnes vues par les géographes et les naturalistes de langue française au XVIIIe siècle. Paris: Bibliothèque nationale, 1969. Buffon, 16-20, 47, 50-54, 59, 63-4, 78-9, 82-3, 91, 101-4, 124, 128-134, 144, 148-151, 164, 167, 208, and climate, 177-180.
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“Peut-on parler de géographie humaine au XVIIIe siècle en France?” Annales de géographie 78 (1969): 57-75. Buffon, pp. 62-65.
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“Voyages et géographie au XVIIIe siècle,” Revue d'histoire des sciences et de leurs applications 22 (1969): 137-154. Buffon’s “Théorie de la terre,” p. 142.
Browne, Janet.
“Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-88).” Endeavour 12 (1988): 86-90.
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The Secular Ark: Studies in the History of Biogeography. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983. Buffon’s vues on creation.
Bryson, Gladys.
“The Emergence of the Social Sciences from Moral Philosophy,” International Journal of Ethics 42 (1932): 304-323.
Bucher, Bernadette J.
Icon and Conquest: A Structural Analysis of Illustrations of de Bry's Great Voyages. Trans. Basia Miller. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.
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La Sauvage aux seins pendants. Paris: Hermann, 1977. La sauvage aux seins pendants est un motif iconographique qui revient, tel un leitmotiv, à travers les gravures sur cuivre illustrant la séries d’ouvrages du 16e siècle dite Grands Voyages publiées par Thédore de Bry.
Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de.
“An Address Delivered Before the French Academy,” Theories of Style with Especial Reference to Prose Composition: Essays, Excerpts, and Translations, ed. and trans. Lane Cooper, 169-179. New York: Burt Franklin, 1968.
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Correspondance general [de] Buffon, ed. H. Nadault de Buffon. Geneva: Slatkine Reprints, 1971.
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“Discourse on Style,” The Writer’s Art by Those Who Have Practiced It, ed. and trans. Rollo Walter Brown, 277-287. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1921.
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“Discours prononcé à l’Académie françoise par M. de Buffon, le jour de sa réception,” Œuvres philosophiques de Buffon, ed. Jean Piveteau, 500-504. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1954.
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Discours sur le style, ed. René Nollet. Paris: Librairie Hachette, 1905.
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Discours sur le style, ed. C.E. Pickford. Department of French, University of Hull, 1978 [Fac-similé de l’édition de Paris, Imprimerie Royale, 1753].
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“Discours sur le style,” Un Autre Buffon, ed. Jacques-Louis Binet and Jacques Roger, 153-161. Paris: Hermann, 1977.
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Les époques de la nature, ed. Jacques Roger. Paris: Editions du Muséum, 1962.
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Histoire naturelle générale et particulière, avec la description du cabinet du roi. Paris: l’Imprimerie Royale, 1749-1788.
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A Natural History of the Globe, of Man, of Beasts, Birds, Fishes, Reptiles, Insects and Plants, from the Writings of Buffon, Cuvier, Lacepede, and Other Eminent Naturalists. A New Edition. with Improvements from Geoffrey, Griffith, Richardson, Lewis and Clark, Long, Wilson, and Others, ed. John Wright. Boston: Gray and Bowen, 1831. 5 vols.
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“Of the Varieties in the Human Species,” Barr’s Buffon. Buffon’s Natural History Containing a Theory of the Earth. A General History of Man, of the Brute Creation, and of Vegetables, Minerals, etc., vol. 4, 190-352. London: T. Gillet, 1807.
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“Style—A Classical View” (1753), trans. Crane Brinton. The Portable Age of Reason Reader, ed. Crane Brinton, 533-536. New York: Viking Press, 1956.
Butterfield, Herbert.
The Origins of Modern Science: 1300-1800. London: G. Bell and Sons, 1957. Buffon’s theories on pp. 236-9.
Castellani, Carlo.
“The Problem of Generation in Bonnet and in Buffon: A Critical Comparison.” Science, Medicine and Society in the Renaissance: Essays to Honor Walter Pagel, ed. Allen G. Debus, vol. 2, 265-288. New York: Science History Publications, 1972.
Caullery, Maurice.
French Science and Its Principal Discoveries since the Seventeenth Century, trans. Henry Dupont. New York: Arno Press, 1975. Evolution of the natural sciences under Buffon’s influence on pp. 7, 34, 37, 46, 57-9, and 103.
Charleton, Donald Geoffrey.
New Images of the Natural in France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Many references to Buffon’s theories.
Charnay, D.
“Le style de Buffon,” Le spectacle du monde 314 (May 1988): 80-84.
Chorley, Richard J.; Anthony J. Dunn and R. P. Berkinsale.
The History of the Study of Landforms: or the Development of Geomorphology. London: Methuen, 1964, vol. 1. Compatibility between Buffon’s theories and Genesis on pp. 13-15 and 99.
Chouillet, Jacques.
Diderot. Paris, 1977. Buffon and Diderot on pp. 35, 67, 114-5, 134, and 148.
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L’Esthétique des Lumières. Paris: PUF, 1974. Aesthetics in Buffon’s work on pp. 6, 14, 158, and Buffon’s influence on the Encyclopedists on p. 175.
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La formation des idées esthétiques de Diderot. Paris: Armand Colin, 1973. Buffon’s important influence on Diderot and their differences on deism and anthropocentrism.
Clastres, Hélène.
“Sauvages et civilisés au XVIIIe siècle,” Histoire des idéologies, eds. François Châtelet and Gérard Mairet, vol. 3, 209-228. Paris: Hachette, 1978.
Cohen, I. Bernard, ed.
Album of Science: From Leonardo to Lavoisier, 1450-1800. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1980. Buffon on pp. 193-5, 232, and 249.
Coleman, William.
“Limits of the Recapitulation Theory: Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer’s Critique of the Presumed Parallelism of Earth History, Ontogeny, and the Present Order of Organisms,” Isis 64 (1973): 341-350. Comparison of the theories by Buffon, Hutton, de Maillet, La Métherie, p. 346.
Colton, Judith.
“From Voltaire to Buffon: Further Observations on Nudity, Heroic and Otherwise,” Studies in Honor of Horst Woldemar Janson, ed. H.-N. Abrams, 531-548. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1981.
Coulet, Henri.
“Diderot et le problème du changement,” Recherches sur Diderot et sur l'Encyclopédie 2 (1987): 59-67. God and the order of nature: points in common and divergent views between Buffon and Diderot, p. 61.
Cuvier, Georges.
“Buffon.” Biographie universelle.
Daniel-Rops.
“Buffon et le style,” Dictionnaire des lettres françaises, ed. Georges Grente, 236-238. “Le Dix-Huitième Siècle.” Paris: Arthème Fayard, 1960. Vol. 1.
Delaunay, P.
“Buffon,” Dictionnaire des lettres françaises, ed. Georges Grente, 234-236. “Le Dix-Huitième Siècle.” Paris: Arthème Fayard, 1960. Vol. 1.
Delon, Michel.
L’idée d'énergie au tournant des Lumières (1770-1820). Paris: PUF, 1988. The energy in Buffon’s style and in his theories.
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“Les Lumières: travail d’une métaphore,” Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century 152 (1976): 527-541.
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“Le prétexte anatomique,” Dix-huitième siècle 12 (1980): 35-48. Sexual anatomy in Buffon, p. 36, and philosophical aspect on p. 40.
Delon, M.; R. Mauzi and S. Menant.
Littérature française. Paris: Arthaud, 1989. Buffon on pp. 305-319 of vol. 6.
Diderot, Denis and Jean le Rond d’Alembert.
Encyclopédie ou dictionaire raisonné des sciences des arts et des metiers, par une société de gens de lettres. 17 vols. Paris: Briasson, 1751-1765. Supplément à l’Encyclopédie .... 4 vols. Amsterdam: M. M. Rey, 1776-1777.
Dieckmann, Herbert.
“Natural History from Bacon to Diderot: A Few Guideposts,” Essays on the Age of Enlightenment in Honor of Ira O. Wade, ed. Jean Macary, 93-112. Geneva: Droz, 1977. Polemic between Buffon and Linnaeus, Daubenton’s attitude, pp. 94-5; Buffon’s theories, pp. 100-104; Diderot’s influence, pp. 108-9.
Dougherty, Frank W. P.
“Buffons Bedeutung für die Entwicklung des anthropologischen Denkens im Deutschland der zweiten Halfe des 18. Jahrhunderts.” Die Natur des Menschen: Probleme der Physischen Anthropologie und Rassenkunde (1750-1850), eds. Gunter Mann and Franz Dumont, 221-279. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1990. Soemmerring-Forschungen 6.
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Collected Essays on Themes from the Classical Period of Natural History. Gottingen: Norbert Klatt Verlag, 1996.
Doumic, René.
Histoire de la littérature française. Paris: Mellottée, 1947.
Duchesneau, François.
La physiologie des lumières: empirisme, modèles et théories. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1982. International Archives of the History of Ideas, vol. 95. Buffon, pp. 235-311.
Duchet, Michèle.
Anthropologie et histoire au siècle des lumières: Buffon, Voltaire, Rousseau, Helvétius, Diderot. Paris: François Maspero, 1971.
Duclaux, Agnes Mary Frances.
The French Ideal: Pascal, Fénelon and Other Essays. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1911.
Ducros, Albert and Jacqueline
“De la découverte des Grands Singes à la Paléo-éthologie humaine,” Bulletins et mémoires de la Société d’Anthropologie de Paris, eds. Claude Blanckaert, A. Ducros, J. J. Hoblin, 1 (1989): 301-320. Buffon on pp. 305, 307-8.
Duvernay-Bolens, Jacqueline.
“Mammouths et Patagons: de l’espèce à la race dans l’Amérique de Buffon,” L’Homme: revue française d’anthropologie 31 (1991): 7-21. Evolution of Buffon’s species definition from 1766 to 1778.
Eboli, Gilles.
“Une version dijonnaise du Discours sur le style,” Bicentenaire de Buffon: 1788-1988. Mémoires de l’Académie des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres de Dijon, 1987-1988 (publ. 1989), vol. 128, pp. 106-110.
Eddy, Jr., John Herbert.
“Buffon’s Histoire naturelle History? A Critique of Recent Interpretations.” Isis 85 (1994): 644-661.
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“Buffon, Organic Alterations, and Man,” Studies in History of Biology 7 (1984): 1-45.
Egerton, Frank N.
“The Concept of Competition in Nature Before Darwin,” Actes du XIIe Congrès international d’histoire des sciences (Paris: 1968), vol. 3, pp. 41-46. Paris: Blanchard, 1971. Buffon on pp. 44-45.
Ellenberger, François.
“De l’influence de l’environnement sur les concepts: l’exemple des théories géodynamiques au XVIIIe siècle en France,” Revue d’histoire des sciences 33 (1980): 33-68. Buffon on pp. 38-9, 42-4, 61, and 68.
Espagne, Michel.
“‘Le style est l’homme même.’ A priori esthétique et écriture scientifique chez Buffon et Winckelmann,” Leçons d’écriture, ce que disent les manuscrits, eds. Almuth Grésillon et Michaële Werner, 51-67. Paris: Lettres Modernes, Minard, 1985.
Farber, Paul Lawrence.
“Buffon and Daubenton: Divergent Traditions within the Histoire naturelle.” Isis 66 (1975): 63-74.
Fausett, David.
Images of the Antipodes in the Eighteenth Century. A Study in Stereotyping. Amsterdam/Atlanta, GA: Rodopi, 1995.
Feldman, Douglas A.
“The History of the Relationship between Environment and Culture in Ethnological Thought: An Overview,” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 11 (1975): 67-81.
Fellows, Otis E.
“Voltaire and Buffon: Clash and Conciliation,” “Buffon and Rousseau. Aspects of a Relationship,” and “Buffon’s Place in the Enlightenment,” From Voltaire to “La Nouvelle Critique:” Problems and Personalities, ed. N. L. Torrey, 22-32, 33-53, and 54-71. Geneva: Droz, 1970.
Fellows, Otis E. and Stephen F. Milliken.
Buffon. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1972.
Fischer, Jean-Louis.
“La callipédie ou l’art d’avoir de beaux enfants,” Dix-Huitième Siècle 23 (1991): 141-158. Buffon’s theory of the generation of the organic molecules, pp. 141-2, 148-9, 156; his rejection of the theory of the impact of maternal imagination on fetal development, p.142; but impact of external factors, pp. 142 and p. 145.
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“Défense et critiques de la thèse ‘imaginationniste’ à l’époque de Spallanzani,” Lazzaro Spallanzani e la biologia del Settecento (Firenze: Leo S. Olschki Editore, 1982): 413-429. Buffon judges that maternal imagination and emotions have no action on foetal development, pp. 423-4, 427 and 429.
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Monstres. Histoire du corps et de se défauts. Paris: Editions Syros-Alternatives, 1991. The monsters in Buffon’s HN, p. 19, “jumelles pygopages,” p. 20, “nègres pies,” pp. 78, 83, 86.
Flourens, Pierre.
Histoire des travaux et des idées de Buffon. Paris: Hachette, 1850. Reprint. Geneva: Slatkine Reprints, 1971.
Formigari, Lia.
“Chain of Being,” Dictionary of the History of Ideas, ed. Philip P. Winer (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1973), vol. 1, pp. 325-335. Buffon’s notion of species and his principle of continuity, pp. 331 and 333.
Forster, Johann Reinhold.
Observations made during a voyage round the world, on physical geography, natural history, and ethic philosophy. London: G. Robinson, 1778.
Fox, Christopher et al., eds.
Inventing Human Science: Eighteenth-Century Domains. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1995. Buffon.
France, Peter.
“The Writer as Performer,” Essays on the Age of Enlightenment in Honor of Ira O. Wade, ed. Jean Macary, 113-129. Geneva: Droz, 1977. Buffon as model of style for Helvetius, pp. 125 and 129.
Frängsmyr, Tore. (ed).
Linnaeus: The Man and His Work, trans. Michael Srigley and Bernard Vowles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983. Opposition between Linnaeus and Buffon, pp. 5, 25, 173, 193; anthropoid apes in HN, pp. 181, 187; albinism, piebaldism, signs of degeneration according Belon, p. 189.
Frick, Jean-Paul.
“Condorcet et le problème de l’histoire,” Dix-Huitième Siècle 18 (1986): 337-358. References to Buffon’s “Discours sur la dégénération des animaux,” pp. 355-6.
Gascar, Pierre.
Buffon. Paris: Gallimard, 1983.
Gay, Peter.
The Enlightenment: An Interpretation. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1968. 2 vols. Buffon, vol. 1, pp. 10, 14, 16-7, 19, 25, 88-9, 136, 191; vol. 2, pp. 152-6 ff.
Gayon, Jean, ed.
Buffon 88. Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, 1992.
Gerbi, Antonello.
The Dispute of the New World: The History of a Polemic, 1750-1900. Trans. Jeremy Moyle. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1973. Buffon.
Gillet, Jean.
“Buffon et les sensations du premier homme,” Le ‘Paradis perdu’ dans la littérature française de Voltaire à Chateaubriand, 439-446. Paris: Klincksieck, 1975.
Gillispie, Charles C.
Genesis and Geology: The Impact of Scientific Discovery upon Religious Beliefs in the Decades before Darwin. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1959. Buffon: 42, 70, 225, 236, 246.
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Science and Policy in France at the End of the Old Regime. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980. Buffon: 143-184, ff.
Glacken, Clarence J.
Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in Western Thought from Ancient Times to the End of the Eighteenth Century. Classical sources are discussed.
Glass, Bentley.
“Eighteenth-Century Concepts of the Origin of Species,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 104 (1960): 227-234.
Goldsmith, Oliver.
An History of the Earth and Animated Nature. London: J. Nourse, 1774.
Goodman, Dena.
“Buffon’s Histoire naturelle as a Work of the Enlightenment,” The Light of Nature: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science presented to Alistair Cameron Crombie, eds. J. D. North and J. J. Roche, 57-65. Dordrecht: Nijhoff, 1985.
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Buffon’s Natural History. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1980.
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The Republic of Letters: A Cultural History of the French Enlightenment. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994. Buffon: 7, 84n, 269.
Gould, Stephen Jay.
“The Geometer of Race.” Discover: The World of Science 15, II (1994): 64-69.
Goulemot, Jean-Marie and Michel Launay.
“Nature des lois et lois de la nature: Montesquieu et Buffon,” Le Siècle des Lumières, 44-70. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1968.
Goyard-Fabre, Simone.
La Philosophie des Lumières en France. Paris: C. Klincksieck, 1972. Buffon’s philosophy throughout his HN: 172-182, 206, 233, 307-8.
Grayson, Donald K.
The Establishment of Human Antiquity. New York: Academic Press, 1983. HN’s dominant role in the problem of humanity’s age: 31-9, 45, 142-4.
Greene, John C.
“The American Debate on the Negro’s Place in Nature, 1780-1815,” Journal of the History of Ideas 15 (1954): 384-396.
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The Death of Adam: Evolution and Its Impact on Western Thought. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1977. Buffon precursor to Darwin.
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“Reflections on the Progress of Darwin Studies,” Journal of the History of Biology 8 (1975): 243-273. Buffon’s influence in terms of methods and ideas: 258, 264-5.
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“Science and the Public in the Age of Jefferson,” Isis 49 (1958): 13-25. Americans’ interest in Buffon’s HN: 13,17-8; Jefferson’s criticism of Buffon’s theory that New World’s animals were inferior, 22-23.
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“Some Early Speculations on the Origin of Human Races,” American Anthropologist 56 (1954): 31-41.
Greene, Mott T.
Geology in the Nineteenth Century: Changing Views of a Changing World. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982. Different conceptions of the world of the 19th century in Buffon, Diderot and their prececessors: 36, 39, 47, 64, and 90.
Gusdorf, Georges.
L’Avènement des sciences humaines au siècle des lumières.
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La conscience révolutionnaire: les idéologues. Paris: Payot, 1978. Vol. 8.
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Dieu, la nature et l’homme au siècle des Lumières. Paris: Payot, 1972. Chapter 4 on 18th-century anthropology.
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Les Sciences humaines et la pensée occidentale, vol. 5, Dieu, la nature, l’homme au Siècle des Lumières. Paris: Payot, 1972. Important developments on Buffon in the second part (“Les sciences de la vie”); Ch.I., “L’Histoire naturelle dans la culture des Lumières:” 243-269; Ch. II, “Le décor mythico-religieux de l’Histoire naturelle:” 270-298; Ch. III, “Nature:” 299-354; Ch. IV, “L’Anthropologie:” 355-423.
Guyot, Henri.
“Buffon: Les variantes du Discours sur le Style,Revue d’histoire littéraire de la France 33 (1926): 225-233.
Hanke, Lewis.
All Mankind is One. De Kalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1974.
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Aristotle and the American Indians: A Study in Race Prejudice in the Modern World. Bloomington, Indiana: 1970.
Hankins, Thomas L.
“D’Alembert and the Great Chain of Being,” Actes du XIIe Congrès international d’Histoire des Sciences. Vol. 3B: “Science et Philosophie, XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles,” 41-44. Paris: Blanchard, 1971. Different viewpoints of d’Alembert and Buffon: 42-3.
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Science and the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. Allusions to Buffon in ch. V: “HN and Physiology,” and ch. VI: “Moral Sciences.”
Hannaford, Ivan.
Race: The History of an Idea in the West. Washington, DC: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996. Buffon: 59, 203-7, 213-4, 231-2. Believes Buffon spoke about six races.
Harré, Rom.
“Knowledge,” The Ferment of Knowledge: Studies in the Historiography of Eighteenth-Century Science, eds. G.S. Rousseau and Roy Porter, 11-54. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.
Hatch, Elvin.
Culture and Morality: The Relativity of Values in Anthropology. New York: Columbia University, 1982.
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Theories of Man and Culture. Columbia University Press, 1973. Historical viewpoint.
Heim, Jean-Louis.
De l’Animal à l’Homme. Paris: éditions du Rocher, 1988. Buffon, “father of anthropology,” pp. 20 and 24.
Highet, Gilbert.
The Classical Tradition: Greek and Roman Influences on Western Literature. London: Oxford University Press, 1967.
Hodgen, Margaret T.
Anthropology, History, and Cultural Change. 1974.
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The Doctrine of Survivals. A Chapter in the History of Scientific Method in the Study of Man. London, 1936.
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Early Anthropology in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1964. Anti-Enlightenment.
Hoffmann, Paul.
La femme dans la pensée des Lumières. Paris: Ophrys, 1977. Sexual physiology in Buffon’s work, pp. 99-103; Buffon sees the female from both the rationalist and sensualist angle, pp. 352-358.
Holton, Gerald.
“On the Jeffersonian Research Program,” Archives internationales d’Histoire des Sciences 36 (1986): 325-336. Jefferson’s opposition to Buffon's theory of degeneration: 328-3.
Hooykaas, Reijer.
The Principle of Uniformity in Geology, Biology and Theology, Natural Law and Divine Miracle. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1963. Remarks on Buffon and reality.
Hulse, Frederick Seymour.
“Habits, Habitats, and Heredity: A Brief History of Studies in Human Plasticity,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 56 (1981): 495-501.
Hunter, Jr., William B.
“The Seventeenth-Century Doctrine of Plastic Nature,” Harvard Theological Review 43 (1950): 197-213.
Hyde, D.
“Jacques Roger’s Buffon: A Renaissance Man in the Age of Newton,” The French American Review 61 (1990): 40-52.
Im Hof, Ulrich.
The Enlightenment, trans. William E. Yuill. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994. Buffon: 232-3.
Jordan, Winthrop D.
“Introduction”, in Samuel Stanhope Smith’s An Essay on the Causes of the Variety of Complexion and Figure in the Human Species, vii-Lvii. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965.
Kames, Henry Home, Lord.
Six Sketches on the History of Man. Philadelphia: R. Bell & R. Aitken, 1776.
Keen, Benjamin.
The Aztec Image in Western Thought. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1971. Montaigne’s view. Buffon: 249-51, 289, 463, 565, 271, 273, 275, 260, 263, 254.
Kerautret, Michel.
La littérature française du XVIIIe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1983. Buffon: 8n, 10, 12, 37, 47, 63-5. Que sais-je? #128
Kiernan, Colm.
The Enlightenment and Science in 18th-Century France, ed. Theodore Besterman. Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century (1973) vol. 59A. Buffon: ch. 7.
Kinch, Michael Paul.
“Geographical Distribution and the Origin of Life: The Development of Early Nineteenth-Century British Explanations,” Journal of the History of Biology 13 (1980): 91-119. References to Buffon’s HN: 95-6.
Knight, David M.
Natural Science Books in English: 1600-1900. London: B. T. Batsford, 1972. Buffon’s HN: 91-2, 102.
Krantz, Émile.
Essai sur l'esthétique de Descartes. Paris: Germer-Baillière, 1882. “Le Discours sur le style: L’idéalisme cartésien et classique dans l’Histoire naturelle,” pp. 342-360.
Kremer-Marietti, Angèle.
“L’anthropologie physique et morale en France et ses implications idéologiques,” Histoires de l’Anthropologie (XVI-XIX siècles), Colloque la Pratique de l’Anthropologie aujourd’hui, 19-21 novembre 1981. Sèvres, ed. Britta Rupp-Eisenreich, 319-352. Paris: Klincksieck, 1984. Buffon: 319-327, 337-8, 342-3, 346.
Kutzer, Michael.
“Kakerlaken: Rasse oder Kranke? Die Diskussion des Albinismus in der Anthropologie der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts,” Die Natur des Menschen: Probleme der Physischen Anthropologie und Rassenkunde (1750-1850), eds. Gunter Mann and Franz Dumont, 189-220. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1990. Soemmerring-Forschungen vol. 6. Buffon: 201-7, 217.
Lacépède, B.G.E. de la Ville sur Illon, comte de.
“Notice de ma Vie,” Texte présenté par R. Hahn, Dix-Huitième Siècle 7 (1975): 49-85. Unedited autobiography containing allusions to Buffon: 57-64, 72, 81.
Laissus, Yves.
“Les Cabinets d’Histoire naturelle,” Enseignement et diffusion des sciences en France au XVIIIe siècle, ed. René Taton, 659-712. Paris: Hermann, 1986. Buffon.
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“Les voyageurs naturalistes du Jardin du Roi et du Muséum d’Histoire naturelle: essai de portrait-robot,” Revue d’Histoire des Sciences 34 (1981): 261-317.
Lamy, Edouard.
Les cabinets d'histoire naturelle en France au XVIIIe siècle. Paris, 1930.
Lane, Lawrence.
“An Enlightenment Controversy, Thomas Jefferson and Buffon,” Enlightenment Essays 3 (1972): 37-40.
Lanessan, Jean-Louis de.
“Les Facultés intellectuelles et morales des animaux et de l’homme d’après Buffon,” Revue anthropologice (Oct. 1913): 329-338.
Lanson, Gustave.
“L’Influence de la philosophie cartésienne sur la littérature française,” Essais de méthode de critique et d’histoire littéraire, ed. Henri Peyre, 211-242. Paris: Librairie Hachette, 1965.
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“Le Rôle d’expérience dans la formation de la philosophie du XVIIIe siècle en France,” Essais de méthode, de critique et d’histoire littéraire, ed. Henri Peyre, 297-335. Paris: Hachette, 1965.
Larson, James L.
“An Alternative Science: Linnaean Natural History in Germany, 1770-1790,” Janus 66 (1979): 267-283.
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Interpreting Nature: The Science of Living Form from Linnaeus to Kant. 1994. Where and why early-modern European scientists made the break from classificatory and teleological modes of thinking to more challenging approaches.
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“Linné’s French Critics,” Svenska Linnesallskapets Arsskrift (Uppsala) (1970): 67-9. Linnaeus’s bicentennial.
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“Linnaeus and the Natural Method,” Isis 58 (1967): 304-320. Buffon’s criticism of Linnaeus’s classification system on p. 310.
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“Not Without a Plan: Geography and Natura1 History in the Late 18th-Century,” Journal of the History of Biology 19 (1986): 447-488. Buffon: 447-9, 451-4, 475-6, 478-9.
Lawrence, William.
Lectures on Physiology, Zoology and the Natural History of Man Delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons. London: Callow, 1819.
Le Cat, Claude Nicolas.
Traité de la couleur de la peau humaine en général, de celle des nègres en particulier, et de la métamorphose d’une de ces couleurs en l’autre, soit de naissance, soit accidentellement. Amsterdam: M. M. Rey, 1765.
Legée, Georgette.
“Cuvier (1769-1832), Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844) et Flourens (1794-1867),” Histoire et biologie fascicule 2 (1969): 10-34. Buffon’s influence on Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, pp. 19, 32, 33n.
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“Les lois de l’organisation d’Aristote à Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire,” Histoire et Nature 1 (1973): 3-25. Buffon cited by Flourens, p. 9; place of humanity and organization in the HN, pp. 16-17.
Lepape, Pierre.
“La révolution de Buffon,” Le Monde (9 février 1990): 22. Comments on Jacques Roger’s book on Buffon.
Lepenies, Wolf.
Das Ende der Naturgeschichte: Wandel kultureller Selbstverständlichkeiten in den Wissenschaften des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts. Munich: Carl Hanser, 1976. Buffon: 131-168 ff.
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“De l’histoire naturelle à l’histoire de la nature,” Dix-Huitième Siècle 11 (1979): 175-184. Buffon: 176-7, 181-4.
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“Linnaeus’ ‘Nemesis divina’ and the Concept of Divine Retaliation,” Isis 73 (1982): 10-27. Anthropocentrism of Linnaeus and Buffon, p. 21.
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Les trois cultures: Entre science et litterature l’avenement de la sociologie, trans. Henri Plard. Paris: éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, 1990. Buffon, particularly on his style: 18, 21-22, 38, 50, 58, 81, 118, 123, 138, 224, and 275.
Leroy, J. F.
“Un grand livre: le Buffon de Monsieur Jacques Roger,” Journal d’Agriculture tropicale et de Botanique appliquée 10 (1963): 621-5. On Roger’s 1962 book on Buffon.
Lilienthal, Georg.
“Samuel Thomas Soemmerring und seine Vorstellungen über Rassenunterschiede,” Die Nature des Menschen, Probleme der Physischen Anthropologie und Rassenkunde (1750-1850), eds. Gunter Mann and Franz Dumont, 31-55. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1990. Monogenism of Buffon, Camper, Blumenbach, Kant and Herder.
Lindberg, David C. and Ronald L. Numbers, eds.
God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986. Article by Jacques Roger.
Lindroth, Sten.
“Linnaeus in his European Context,” Svenska Linnesallskapets Arsskrift (Uppsala) (1978): 9-17. Bicentennial of Linnaeus’ death.
Loemker, Leroy E.
Struggle for Synthesis: The Seventeenth-Century Background of Leibniz’s Synthesis of Order and Freedom. Cambridge, 1972.
London Times Literary Supplement
19 (July 29, 1920): 478.
Long, Edward.
History of Jamaica. 1774.
Lovejoy, Arthur O.
“The Argument for Organic Evolution before the ‘Origin of Species,’ 1830-1858,” Forerunners of Darwin: 1745-1859, eds. Bentley Glass, O. Temkin, W. L. Straus, Jr.,356-414. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1959. Buffon: 364, 394-398.
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“Buffon and the Problem of Species,” Forerunners of Darwin: 1745-1859, eds. Bentley Glass, O. Temkin, W. L. Straus, Jr., 84-113. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1959.
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The Great Chain of Being: A Study of the History of an Idea. Harvard University Press, 1936.
Lyon, John.
“The ‘Initial Discourse’ to Buffon’s Histoire naturelle: The First Complete English Translation.” Journal of the History of Biology 9 (1976): 133-181.
Lyon, John and Phillip R. Sloan, eds.
From Natural History to the History of Nature: Readings from Buffon and His Critics. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1981.
Magner, Lois N.
A History of the Life Sciences. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1979. Buffon, admirer of Pliny the Elder, p. 58; adversary of Spallanzani, pp. 194 and 196; of Louis Joblot, pp. 244-6; evolutionist, pp. 354, 357-361, 365; inspirator of Lamarck and Erasmus Darwin, p. 367.
Malherbe, Michel.
“Mathématiques et sciences physiques dans le ‘Discours préliminaire’ de l’Encyclopédie,” Recherches sur Diderot et sur l’Encyclopédie 9 (1990): 109-146. Comparison with the “Premier Discours sur la manière d’étudier et de traiter l’Histoire naturelle” of Buffon, pp. 137n, 139n, 141n.
Manuel, Frank E.
The Eighteenth Century Confronts the Gods. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959. Buffon: 138-140.
Matousek, Otakar.
“Buffon and the Philosophy of his Natural History,” Archives Internationales d’Histoire des Sciences 29 (1950): 312-319.
Mayr, Ernst.
The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution and Inheritance. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1982. Buffon.
McClellan III, James E.
Science Reorganized: Scientific Societies in the Eighteenth Century. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985. Buffon: 13, 162, 184, 234, 257.
Merchant, Carolyn.
Earthcare: Women and The Environment. 1995. Author is one of the leading thinkers in environmentalism: women as caregivers and men as dominating nature and other historical ideas.
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The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution.
Michéa, René.
“Goethe et les évolutionnistes français du XVIIIe siècle,” Goethe et l’esprit français, 129-149. Paris: Les Belles-Lettres, 1958. Buffon: 129, 131-2, 135-6, 139-144.
Milic, Louis T.
“Rhetorical Choice and Stylistic Option. The Conscious and Unconscious Poles,” Literary Style, ed. and in part translated by Seymour Chatman. London: Oxford University Press, 1971. About Buffon: 77-88. Papers from the International Symposium on Literary Style at Bellagio, Italy, in August 1969.
Milliken, Stephen F.
Buffon and the British. Ph.D. Dissertation. History Department, Columbia University, 1965.
Milly, P.
“Buffon, précurseur de la science moderne,” Pensée française 16 (1957): 30-31.
Moravia, Sergio.
“The Enlightenment and the Sciences of Man,” History of Science 18 (1980): 247-268.
Mornet, Daniel.
“Les enseignements des bibliothèques privées (1750-1780),” Revue d’histoire litteraire de la France 17 (1910): 449-460.
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La pensée française au XVIII siècle. Paris: Armand Colin, 1969. Buffon in face of the theologians: 83-96 and 99.
Moser, Walter.
“Buffon, exégète entre théologie et géologie,” Strumenti critici [Bologna] 53 (1987): 17-42.
Mousnier, Roland.
“Aristotélisme, Cartésianisme, Newtonianisme,” Progrès scientifique et technique au XVIIIe siècle. Paris, 1958.
Muller, A.
“Buffon,” De Rabelais à Paul Valéry: Les grands écrivains devant le Christianisme, V, 121-3. Paris: Impr. Foulon, 1962.
Neu, John., ed.
Isis Cumulative Bibliography, 1966-75. Vol. 1. “Personalities and Institutions.” London: Mansell, 1980. Buffon: 64.
Nussbaum, Felicity A.
Torrid Zones: Maternity, Sexuality, and Empire in Eighteenth-Century English Narratives. Torrid, temperate, and frigid zones; center and periphery; and other binaries.
Oehler-Klein, Sigrid.
“Samuel Thomas Soemmerrings Neuroanatomie als Bindeglied zwischen Physiognomik und Anthropologie,” Die Natur des Menschen. Probleme der Physischen Anthropologie und Rassenkunde (1750-1850), eds. Gunter Mann and Franz Dumont, 57-87. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1990. Buffon’s antiphysiognomonism.
O’Gorman, Edmundo.
The Invention of America: An Inquiry into the Historical Nature of the New World and the Meaning of Its History. Bloomington, 1961.
Oldroyd, David R.
“Historicism and the Rise of Historical Geology, Part 2,” History of Science 17 (1979): 227-257. Buffon’s “Théorie de la Terre” and “Epoques de la Nature:” 227-8.
Olender, Maurice, ed.
Le racisme mythes et sciences: pour Léon Poliakov. Bruxelles: Editions Complexe, 1981. Buffon: 347-8, 350, 355n8-9.
Ostoya, Paul.
“Maupertuis et la biologie,” Revue d’Histoire des Sciences et de leurs Applications 7 (1954): 60-78. Maupertuis and Buffon: 60, 68, 71, 73, 75-6.
Outram, Dorinda.
“Uncertain Legislator: Georges Cuvier’s Laws of Nature in Their Intellectual Context,” Journal of the History of Biology 19 (1986): 323-368. Divergence of views between Cuvier and Buffon: 335 and 353.
Pappas, John.
“Le moralisme des liaisons dangereuses,” Dix-Huitième Siècle 2 (1970): 265-296. Buffon’s probable atheism despite an attachment to the traditional religion: 269.
Pastore, Nicholas.
“On Plagiarism: Buffon, Condillac, Porterfield, Schopenhauer,” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 9 (1973): 378-392.
Paul, Charles B.
Science and Immortality: The Eloges of the Paris Academy of Sciences (1699-1791). Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.
Pautrat, Jean-Yves.
“L’Homme antédiluvien: anthropologie et géologie,” Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d’Anthropologie de Paris, eds. Claude Blanckaert, A. Ducros, and J. J. Hublin, vol. 1 (1989): 131-151.
Petit, Georges and Jean Théodoridès.
Histoire de la zoologie des origines à Linné. Paris: Hermann, 1962. Buffon’s praise of Pline the Elder, pp. 120-4, 126; and criticism of Aldrovandi, pp. 263-4.
Piveteau, Jean.
“Buffon,” Dictionnaire de Biographie Française, ed. M. Prévost and Roman d’Amat, vol. 7, 629-631. Paris: Librairie Letouzey et Ané, 1956.
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“L’idée de nature chez Buffon et chez Lamarck,” Hommage au Professeur Pierre-Paul Grassé: Evolution, Histoire, Philosophie, 37-42. Paris: Masson, 1987.
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Image de l’homme dans la pensée scientifique. Paris: Office d’édition d’impression et de librairie, 1986. Humanity in the work of Buffon and Lamarck.
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La main et l’hominisation. Paris: Masson, 1991. Buffon: 9-10, 13, 25-28.
Pogliano, Claudio.
“Between Form and Function: A New Science of Man,” The Enchanted Loom. Chapters in the History of Neuroscience, ed. Pietro Corsi. Importance of Daubenton, eclipsed by Buffon, in the HN: 144.
Poplin, François.
“L’âge de l’homme et de la terre au temps des Encyclopédistes et de Buffon,” Le Temps de la Préhistoire, ed. J. P. Mohen, vol. 1, pp. 4-7. Dijon: Archéologia, 1989.
Porter, Roy.
The Making of Geology: Earth Science in Britain. 1660-1815. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977. Buffon: 109-110; HN: 99, 117, 159, 170, 231, 159.
Prichard, James Cowles.
Researches into the Physical History of Mankind, ed. George W. Stocking, Jr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973.
Quatrefages, Armand de.
“Histoire naturelle de l’homme. Unité de l’espèce humaine,” Revue des Deux Mondes (15 dec. 1860): 807-833; (1 jan. 1861): 155-175. Unity of the human species supported by Linnaeus and Buffon.
Rappaport, Rhoda.
“Geology and Orthodoxy: the Case of Noah’s Flood in Eigheenth-Century Thought,” British Journal for the History of Science 11 (1978): 1-18. Buffon, condemned in 1749, but not censored in 1778, by the Sorbonne theologians; his opinions in favor of a local but prolonged Flood: 6-9.
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“Problems and Sources in the History of Geology, 1749-1810,” History of Science 3 (1964): 60-77. Buffon: 61, 63-5, 67-8, 71.
Réau, Louis.
L’Europe française au siècle des Lumières. Paris: Albin Michel, 1971. Buffon’s fame in Italy, p. 77; in Spain, p. 79; and in Russia, pp. 96, 158.
Rey, Roselyne.
“Dynamique des formes et interprétation de la nature,” Recherches sur Diderot et sur l’Encyclopédie 11 (1991): 49-62. Species and the individual in the HN; strong influence of Buffon’s work on Diderot’s ideas: 54-7, 59-62.
Richardson, Robert Alan.
The Development of the Theory of Geographical Race Formation: Buffon to Darwin. University of Wisconsin Thesis, 1969.
Robinson, James E.
The Scope of Rhetoric: A Handbook for Composition and Literature. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1970.
Roger, Jacques.
“Buffon,” Dictionary of Scientific Biography, ed. C. C. Gillispie, vol. 2, 576-582. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1970.
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“Buffon and Mathematics.” Geometrical Probability and Biological Structures: Buffon’s 200th Anniversary, eds. R. E. Miles and J. Serra, 29-35. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1978.
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“Buffon et la théorie de l’anthropologie.” Enlightenment Studies in Honour of Lester G. Crocker, eds. Alfred J. Bingham and Virgil W. Topazio, 253-262. Oxford: The Voltaire Foundation.
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“Buffon, Jefferson et l’homme americain,” Bulletins et Memoires de la Société d’Anthropologie de Paris 1 (1989): 57-65.
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Buffon. Un philosophe au Jardin du Roi. Paris: Fayard, 1989.
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“Diderot et Buffon en 1749,” Diderot Studies (Geneva) 4 (1963): 221-236.
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“Energie, ordre et histoire dans la pensée de Buffon,” Histoire et nature 19-20 (1981-1982): 53-55.
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“L’Esprit scientifique de Buffon,” Comptes Rendus du 84e Congrès des Sociétés savantes de Paris et des départements, Dijon 1959, Section Sciences, 21-34. Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1960.
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“L’Europe savante 1700-1850,” Les savants genevois dans l’Europe intellectuelle du XVIIe au milieu du XIXe siècle, ed. J. Trembly, 23-54. Geneva: Éditions du Journal de Genève, 1987. Buffon’s HN à travers l’Europe.
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“L’Histoire naturelle au XVIIIe siècle: De l’Echelle des êtres à l’Evolution,” Bulletin de la Société zoologique de France 115 (1990): 245-254. Buffon: 250-1.
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“Histoire Naturelle et Biologie chez Buffon,” Lazzaro Spallanzani e la Biologia dei Settecento, eds. Giuseppe Montalenti et Paolo Rossi, 353-362. Firenze: Leo S. Olschki Editore, 1982.
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“The Living World,” The Ferment of Knowledge: Studies in the Historiography of Eighteenth-Century Science, eds. G. S. Rousseau and Roy Porter, 255-283. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980. Importance of Buffon’s ideas: 260, 262, 265-6, 268, 273-5, 279-283.
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“The Mechanistic Conception of Life,” God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science, eds. D. C. Lindberg and R. L. Numbers, 277-295. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986. Buffon’s theories and theology, p. 289.
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“Réflexions sur l’histoire de la biologie,” Revue d’Histoire des Sciences 17 (1964): 25-40.
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Les sciences de la vie dans la pensée française du XVIIIe siècle. Paris: Armand Colin, 1971. Buffon: Part III, Chapter II, pp. 527-584.
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“La théorie de la terre au XVIIe siècle,” Revue d’Histoire des Sciences 26 (1973): 23-48. Influence on Buffon’s and Cuvier’s theories: 24, 26, 47-8.
Rogers, Francis M.
“Celestial Navigation, From Local Systems to a Global Conception,” First Images of America: The Impact of the New World on the Old, ed. Fredi Chiappelli, vol. 2, pp. 687-704. University of California Press, 1976.
Rossi, Paolo.
The Dark Abyss of Time: The History of the Earth and the History of Nations from Hooke to Vico, trans. Lydia G. Cochrone. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1987. The best account of the Enlightenment discovery of the vast age of the universe and of the philosophes’ attitudes towards antiquity.
Rouquette, Michel-Louis.
“R. W. Darwin et la psychophysiologie de la vision,” Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 26 (1973): 146-151. Buffon and acddental colors: 147.
Rousseau, George S. and Roy Porter, eds.
The Ferment of Knowledge: Studies in the Historiography of Eighteenth-Century Science. Cambridge University Press, 1980.
Rupp-Eisenreich, Britta.
“The History of Anthropology in France,” trans. G. W. Stocking, History of Anthropology Newsletter 8 (1981): 13-20.
Saban, Roger.
“Daubenton, précurseur de l’anatomie comparée,” Comptes Rendus du l09e Congrès National des Sociétés Savantes, Dijon 1984, Section d’Histoire des Sciences et des Techniques, 145-164. Paris: Comité des Travaux Historiques et Scientifiques, 1984. Buffon’s shadow: 146-150 and 154.
Saisselin, Rimy G.
“Buffon, Style, and Gentlemen,” Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism (Baltimore) 16 (1957-1958): 357-36l.
Sandler, Iris.
“Some Reflections on the Protean Nature of the Scientific Precursor,” History of Science 17 (1979): 170-190. Maupertuis, Buffon, Darwin.
Schaffer, Simon.
“Natural Philosophy,” The Ferment of Knowledge: Studies in the Historiography of 18th-C. Science, eds. G. S. Rousseau and Roy Porter, 55-91. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.
Scheidt, Walter.
“The Concept of Race in Anthropology and the Divisions into Human Races from Linneus to Deniker,” This is Race: An Anthology Selected from the International Literature on the Races of Man, ed. Earl W. Count, 354-391. New York: Henry Schuman, 1950.
Schiller, Joseph.
“L’Echelle des êtres et la série chez Lamarck,” Colloque international “Lamarck,” tenu au Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle Paris 1-3 juillet 1971, 87-103. Paris: Blanchard, 1971. Buffon theory of the “molécules organiques” and “moule intérieur:” 91-94; Réaumur’s criticism of Buffon: 97; Buffon’s Unity of Plan in the animal kingdom: 100-102.
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“Queries, Answers and Unsolved Problems in 18th-Century Biology,” History of Science 12 (1974): 184-199. Buffon’s and Bonnet’s agreements on classifications: 185; but disagreements on epigenism: 192; Buffon, Needham and spontaneous generation: 193; organization of life: 194-195.
Schwab, Raymond.
The Oriental Renaissance: Europe’s Rediscovery of India and the East, 1680-1880, trans. Gene Patterson-Black and Victor Reinking. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984. Buffon: 146, 304.
Sloan, Phillip Reid.
“Buffon, German Biology and the Historical Interpretation of Biological Species,” British Journal for the History of Science 12 (1979): 109-153.
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“The Buffon-Linnaeus Controversy,” Isis 67 (1976): 356-375.
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“Buffon Studies Today,” History of Science 32 (1994): 469-477.
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“From Logical Universals to Historical Individuals: Buffon’s Conception of Biological species,” Histoire du concept d’espèce dans les sciences de la vie, eds. J. Roger and J. L. Fischer, 101-140. Paris: Éditions de la Fondation Singer-Polignac, 1987.
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“The Gaze of Natural History,” Inventing Human Science, eds. C. Fox, R. Porter, and R. Wokler, 112-151.
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“Le Hypothetisme de Buffon,’ Buffon 88: Proceedings of the International Buffon Conference, ed. J. Gayon, 207-222. Paris: Vrin, 1992.
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“John Locke, John Ray and the Problem of the Natural System,” Journal of the History of Biology 5 (1972): 1-53. Locke’s and Condillac’s influences on Buffon: 52.
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“The Idea of Racial Degeneracy in Buffon’s Histoire Naturelle,” Racism in the Eighteenth Century, ed. Harold E. Paliaro, vol. 3, 293-321. Cleveland: Western Reserve Press, 1973.
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“The Impact of Buffon’s Taxonomie Philosophy in German Biology: The Establishment of the Biological Species Concept,” Human Implications of Scientific Advance, ed. E. G. Forbes, 531-538. Proceedings of the XVth International Congress of the History of Science, Edinburgh 10-19 August 1977. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1978.
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“Organic Molecules Revisited,” Buffon 88: Proceedings of the International Buffon Conference, ed. J. Gayon, 415-437. Paris: Vrin, 1992.
Sloan, Phillip R. and John Lyon.
“Introduction.” From Natural History to the History of Nature: Readings from Buffon and His Critics, eds. and trans. John Lyon and Phillip R. Sloan, 1-32. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1981.
Smith, Samuel Stanhope.
An Essay on the Causes of the Variety of Complexion and Figure in the Human Species, ed. Winthrop D. Jordan. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1965.
Solinas, Giovanni.
“Newton and Buffon,” Newton and the Enlightenment, ed. P. Beer, 22 (1978): 431-439. Vistas in Astronomy.
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“Newton in Buffon,” Studi di Filosofia e di Storia della Cultura, 33-50. Sassari, Gallizzi, 1978.
Sommer, Antje.
“William Frederic Edwards: ‘Rasse’ als Grundlage europäischer Geschichtsdeutung?” Die Natur des Menschen: Probleme der Physischen Anthropologie und Rassenkunde (1750-1850), eds. Gunter Mann and Franz Dumont, 365-409. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1990. The races in the HN: 381-2, 384, 393, 397-8.
Starobinski, Jean.
“Rousseau et Buffon.” Gesnerus 21 (1964): 83-94.
Strohl, Jean.
“Buffon,” Tableau de la litterature française, vol. 2, 250-261. Paris: Gallimard, 1962.
Svagelski, Jean.
L’Idée de compensation en France, 1750-1850. Lyon: L’Hermès, 1981. Numerous developments on Buffon.
Tapa, Kouassi.
L’Afrique dans l’Histoire naturelle de Buffon. Doctorat de troisième cycle (philosophie), dactyl., Université de Paris I (1982), 248 pp.
Taton, René, ed.
Histoire générale des sciences. Vol. 2, “La Science moderne (de 1450 à 1800).” Part III, “Le XVIIIe siècle,” pp. 435-771. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1969. Buffon. Vol. 3, “La Science contemporaine.” Part I, “Le XIXe siècle.” Paris: PUF, 1981. Buffon’s influence on zoology, paleontology, comparative anatomy, the theory of evolution, and geology.
Taylor, Alan C.
Le Président de Brosses et l’Australie. Paris: 1937. Most thorough geographer of the eighteenth century.
Teggart, Frederick J.
Theory of History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1925. Cf. 99-128.
Terrall, Mary.
“The Culture of Science in Frederick the Great’s Berlin,” History of Science 28 (1990): 333-364. Buffon incorporated Leibnizian themes into his NH a decade later.
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The Man Who Flattened the Earth: Maupertuis and the Sciences in the Enlightenment. Chicago, University of Chicago Press: 2002.
Tétry, Andrée.
“Zoologie,” Histoire générale des sciences, ed. René Taton. Vol. 2, “La Science moderne (de 1450 à 1800).” Part III, “Le XVIIIe siècle,” 670-678. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1969. Importance of Buffon, Intendant du Jardin du Roi, p. 671, and the HN, pp. 674, 677-8.
Thoresen, Timothy H. H.
“Art, Evolution, and History: A Case Study of Paradigm Change in Anthropology,” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 13 (1977): 107-125.
Thoresen, Timothy H. H., ed.
Toward a Science of Man: Essays in the History of Anthropology. The Hague: Mouton, 1975. Article by George Stocking, Jr.
Thorndike, Lynn.
“De Complexionibus,” Isis 49 (1958): 398-408. In the Middle Ages a man’s complexion was conceived as revealing his temperament because it showed his particular blend of humors, each of which was associated with certain colors.
Ti-Chou, T.
“A Short Talk on Biological Theories and the History of their Development,” Chinese Studies in Philosophy 10 (1979): 55-82. The big biology theories from Aristotle to Loeb passing through Buffon.
Tinland, Franck.
L’Homme sauvage. “Homo ferus” et “Homo sylvestris.” De l’animal à l’homme. Paris: Payot, 1968. In Buffon’s HN, the most primitive man surpasses the most evolved anthropoid, the latter being essentially deprived of “un principe supérieur” and incapable of a spoken language, pp. 156-8 ff.
Todorov, Tzvetan.
Theories of the Symbol, trans. Catherine Porter. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982. Cf. chapter 4-6.
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On Human Diversity: Nationalism, Racism, and Exoticism in French Thought, trans. Catherine Porter. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994. French thought since the eighteenth century. Buffon: 96-106, 390.
Tomaselli, Sylvana.
“Reflections on the History of the Science of Woman,” History of Science 29 (1991): 185-205. Place and description of woman in the HN; Buffon’s judgement of man’s conduct towards her: 195-198.
Tonelli, Giorgio.
“Pierre-Jacques Changeux and Scepticism in the French Enlightenment,” Studia Leibnitiana 6 (1974): 106-126. Philosophy of science of Fontenelle, d’Alembert, Buffon.
Tooley, Marian I.
“Bodin and the Medieval Theory of Climate,” Speculum 28 (1953): 64-83. Bodin’s theory derives logically from the medieval conception of the system of the world.
Torlais, Jean.
“Une rivalité célèbre: Réaumur et Buffon,” La Presse Médicale 66 (1958): 1057-8.
Toulmin, Stephen and June Goodfield.
The Discovery of Time. New York: Harper and Row, 1965. The discovery of time perspective is hailed as a cultural revolution having great implications for anthropology.
Tuan, Yi-Fu.
Passing Strange and Wonderful: Aesthetics, Nature, and Culture. Kodansha, 1995. Author argues that the moral and the aesthetic are inextricably intertwined and have been so throughout history in all cultures.
Ueberschlag, Georges.
“Les disciples de Linné: Voyageurs, savants et penseurs,” Modeles et moyens de la reflexion politique au XVIIIe siècle, vol. 1, 137-151. Lille: Univ. de Lille III, 1977.
Vartanian, Aram.
“La Mettrie, Diderot, and Sexology in the Enlightenment,” Essays on the Age of Enlightenment in Honor of Ira O. Wade, ed. Jean Macary, 347-367. Geneva: Droz, 1977. Buffon’s point of view towards sexual perversions, p. 351n, and human sexual desire, pp. 353, 359n.
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“The Problem of Generation and the French Enlightenment,” Diderot Studies 6 (1964): 339-352. Analysis of Jacques Roger’s book; on Buffon: 343, 346, 349, 351.
Vier, Jacques.
“Buffon,” Histoire de la littérature française: XVIIIe siècle. Vol. 1, “L’Armature intellectuelle et morale,” 307-337. Paris: Armand Colin, 1965.
Vigarello, Georges.
“Buffon et la Machine Animale,” Epistémé: Revue internationale d’épistémologie (Milan) 3 (1973): 186-198.
Voget, Fred W.
“Progress, Science, History and Evolution in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Anthropology,” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 3 (1967): 132-155.
Voltaire, François Marie Arouet de.
“Traité de métaphysique,” Œuvres complètes de Voltaire, ed. Louis Moland, vol. 22, 189-231. Paris: Garnier Frères, 1877-1885.
Vyverberg, Henry.
Human Nature, Cultural Diversity, and the French Enlightenment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. Buffon’s view of humanity, the human species, the races: 16, 34, 69,73,108, 114n45.
Wade, Ira Owen.
The Structure and Form of the French Enlightenment. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977. Vol. 1, importance of Buffon’s HN, pp. 558-565; agreement between Buffon and Diderot, pp. 567-568, 570, 574, 579; divergences from Condillac, pp.598-600. Vol. 2, Buffon’s ties with Diderot, pp. 97-98, 104, 112; with Rousseau, pp. 128, 175; with Helvétius, pp. 263, 292.
Wattles, Gurdon.
“Buffon, d’Alembert and Materialist Atheism,” Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century 266 (1989): 285-341.
Weber, Gay.
“Science and Society in Nineteenth-Century Anthropology,” History of Science 12 (1974): 260-283.
Wells, Kentwood D.
“William Charles Wells and the Races of Man,” Isis 64 (1973): 215-225. Buffon, cited with Linnaeus, on the subject of their attempts to classify the races according to physical characteristics: 218.
Whitrow, Magda and I. Bernard Cohen, eds.
Isis Cumulative Bibliography, 1913-1965. London: Mansell, 1971. Vol. 1, “Personalities.” Buffon: 204-5.
Wikman, K. Robert V.
“Linnaeus as Anthropologist and Ethnologist,” Tidscrift för Nordick Folkminnesforskning 14 (1958): 102-107.
Wilkie, J. S.
“Buffon, Lamarck and Darwin: The Originality of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution,” Darwin’s Biological Work: Some Aspects Reconsidered, ed. P. R. Bell, 262-307. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1959.
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“The Idea of Evolution in the Writings of Buffon—I-III,” Annals of Science 12 (1956): 48-62, 212-227, 255-266.
Wohl, Robert.
“Buffon and His Project for a New Science,” Isis 51 (1960): 186-199.
Wokler, Robert.
“The Ape Debates in Enlightenment Anthropology,” Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century 192 (1980): 1164-1175. Buffon: 1168-1171, 1173.
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“Tyson and Buffon on the Orang-utan,” Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century 155 (1976): 2301-19.
Wood, Paul B.
“The Natural History of Man in the Scottish Enlightenment,” History of Science 28 (1990): 89-123. Buffon’s influence: 89, 99-100, 105.
Worster, Donald.
The Ends of the Earth: Perspectives on Modern Environmental History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Buffon’s “Epoques:” earth’s vulnerability, pp. 6-9.
Young, James Allen .
“The Osler Medal Essay. Height, Weight, and Health: Anthropometric Study of Human Growth in Nineteenth-Century American Medicine,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine (Baltimore) 53 (1979): 214-243. The origin of anthropometry: Buffon.
Zabell, Sandy L.
“Buffon, Price and Laplace: Scientific Attribution in the 18th Century,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences 39 (1988): 173-181.
Zimmermann, Eberhard August Wilhelm von.
Zoologie géogaphique: premier article l’homme, trans. Jakob Mauvillon. Cassel: De l’imprimerie française de Cassel, 1784.

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